Purpose of review: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is epidemic throughout the word. Despite various novel therapeutic opportunities, CKD is still associated with high morbidity and mortality. In CKD, patient's chronic inflammation is frequent and related with adverse outcomes. Both innate and adaptive immunity are dysfunctional in CKD. Therefore, it is plausible to interfere with dysfunctional immunity in these patients. In the current review, we present the updated experimental and clinical data summarizing the effects of nutritional interventions including natural products and dietary supplements on immune dysfunction in the context of CKD.
Recent findings: Nutritional interventions including natural products and dietary supplements (e.g., curcumin, sulforaphane, resistant starch, anthocyanin, chrysin, short chain fatty acids, fish oil resistant starch) slow down the inflammation by at least 6 mechanisms: (i) decrease nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB); (ii) decrease NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3); (iii) decrease interleukin-1 (IL-1), decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion; (iv) decrease polymorphonuclear priming); (v) promote anti-inflammatory pathways (nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (NFR2); (vi) increase T regulatory (Tregs) cells). Natural products and dietary supplements may provide benefit in terms of kidney health. By modulation of nutritional intake, progression of CKD may be delayed.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Food; Immune system; Inflammation; Nutritional intervention.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.