Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in T Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia: A Contemporary Analysis from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

Transplant Cell Ther. 2022 Apr;28(4):187.e1-187.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.jtct.2022.01.017. Epub 2022 Jan 23.


T cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare, aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options and poor long-term survival. Previous studies of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for T-PLL are limited by small numbers, and descriptions of patient and transplantation characteristics and outcomes after alloHCT are sparse. In this study, we evaluated outcomes of alloHCT in patients with T-PLL and attempted to identify predictors of post-transplantation relapse and survival. We conducted an analysis of data using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database on 266 patients with T-PLL who underwent alloHCT between 2008 and 2018. The 4-year rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), relapse, and treatment-related mortality (TRM) were 30.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.8% to 36.5%), 25.7% (95% CI, 20% to 32%), 41.9% (95% CI, 35.5% to 48.4%), and 32.4% (95% CI, 26.4% to 38.6%), respectively. In multivariable analyses, 3 variables were associated with inferior OS: receipt of a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen (hazard ratio [HR], 2.18; P < .0001), age >60 years (HR, 1.61; P = .0053), and suboptimal performance status, defined by Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) <90 (HR, 1.53; P = .0073). Receipt of an MAC regimen also was associated with increased TRM (HR, 3.31; P < .0001), an elevated cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 2.94; P = .0011), and inferior DFS (HR, 1.86; P = .0004). Conditioning intensity was not associated with relapse; however, stable disease/progression was correlated with increased risk of relapse (HR, 2.13; P = .0072). Both in vivo T cell depletion (TCD) as part of conditioning and KPS <90 were associated with worse TRM and inferior DFS. Receipt of total body irradiation had no significant effect on OS, DFS, or TRM. Our data show that reduced-intensity conditioning without in vivo TCD (ie, without antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab) before alloHCT was associated with long-term DFS in patients with T-PLL who were age ≤60 years or who had a KPS >90 or chemosensitive disease.

Keywords: Allogeneic stem cell transplant; Prolymphocytic leukemia; T-PLL.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Graft vs Host Disease* / epidemiology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell* / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects
  • Transplantation, Homologous / adverse effects