Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a single-pass transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is secreted in a soluble (sTREM2) form. Mutations in TREM2 have been linked to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A prominent neuropathological component of AD is deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) into plaques, particularly Aβ40 and Aβ42. While the membrane-bound form of TREM2 is known to facilitate uptake of Aβ fibrils and the polarization of microglial processes toward amyloid plaques, the role of its soluble ectodomain, particularly in interactions with monomeric or fibrillar Aβ, has been less clear. Our results demonstrate that sTREM2 does not bind to monomeric Aβ40 and Aβ42, even at a high micromolar concentration, while it does bind to fibrillar Aβ42 and Aβ40 with equal affinities (2.6 ± 0.3 µM and 2.3 ± 0.4 µM). Kinetic analysis shows that sTREM2 inhibits the secondary nucleation step in the fibrillization of Aβ, while having little effect on the primary nucleation pathway. Furthermore, binding of sTREM2 to fibrils markedly enhanced uptake of fibrils into human microglial and neuroglioma derived cell lines. The disease-associated sTREM2 mutant, R47H, displayed little to no effect on fibril nucleation and binding, but it decreased uptake and functional responses markedly. We also probed the structure of the WT sTREM2-Aβ fibril complex using integrative molecular modeling based primarily on the cross-linking mass spectrometry data. The model shows that sTREM2 binds fibrils along one face of the structure, leaving a second, mutation-sensitive site free to mediate cellular binding and uptake.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β; fibrillization kinetics; integrative modeling; soluble TREM2.
Copyright © 2022 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.