Clonal and subclonal TP53 molecular impairment is associated with prognosis and progression in multiple myeloma

Blood Cancer J. 2022 Jan 26;12(1):15. doi: 10.1038/s41408-022-00610-y.


Aberrations on TP53, either as deletions of chromosome 17p (del17p) or mutations, are associated with poor outcome in multiple myeloma (MM), but conventional detection methods currently in use underestimate their incidence, hindering an optimal risk assessment and prognostication of MM patients. We have investigated the altered status of TP53 gene by SNPs array and sequencing techniques in a homogenous cohort of 143 newly diagnosed MM patients, evaluated both at diagnosis and at first relapse: single-hit on TP53 gene, either deletion or mutation, detected both at clonal and sub-clonal level, had a minor effect on outcomes. Conversely, the coexistence of both TP53 deletion and mutation, which defined the so-called double-hit patients, was associated with the worst clinical outcome (PFS: HR 3.34 [95% CI: 1.37-8.12] p = 0.008; OS: HR 3.47 [95% CI: 1.18-10.24] p = 0.02). Moreover, the analysis of longitudinal samples pointed out that TP53 allelic status might increase during the disease course. Notably, the acquisition of TP53 alterations at relapse dramatically worsened the clinical course of patients. Overall, our analyses showed these techniques to be highly sensitive to identify TP53 aberrations at sub-clonal level, emphasizing the poor prognosis associated with double-hit MM patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics*
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics*


  • TP53 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53