TP53 aberrations are found in approximately 10% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and are considered early driver events affecting leukemia stem cells. In this study, we compared features of a total of 84 patients with these disorders seen at a tertiary cancer center. Clinical and cytogenetic characteristics as well as immunophenotypes of immature blast cells were similar between AML and MDS patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 226 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 131-300) for the entire cohort with an estimated 3-year OS rate of 11% (95% CI, 6-22). OS showed a significant difference between MDS (median, 345 days; 95% CI, 235-590) and AML patients (median, 91 days; 95% CI, 64-226) which is likely due to a different co-mutational pattern as revealed by next-generation sequencing. Transformation of TP53 aberrant MDS occurred in 60.5% of cases and substantially reduced their survival probability. Cox regression analysis revealed treatment class and TP53 variant allele frequency as prognostically relevant parameters but not the TP53-specific prognostic scores EAp53 and RFS. These data emphasize similarities between TP53 aberrant AML and MDS and support previous notions that they should be classified and treated as a distinct disorder.
Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; EAp53 and RFS score; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Stem cell disorder; TP53.
© 2022. The Author(s).