Short-Term Variability of Proton Density Fat Fraction in Pancreas and Liver Assessed by Multiecho Chemical-Shift Encoding-Based MRI at 3 T

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2022 Oct;56(4):1018-1026. doi: 10.1002/jmri.28084. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Abstract

Background: Quantification of pancreatic fat (PF) and intrahepatic lipids (IHL) is of increasing interest in subjects at risk for metabolic diseases. There is limited data available on short- and medium-term variability of PF/IHL and on their dependence on nutritional status.

Purpose: To assess short-term intraday variations of PF/IHL after a high-fat meal as well as medium-term changes after 5 days of high-caloric diet.

Study type: Prospective cohort study.

Subjects: A total of 12 subjects (six males) for intraday variations study, 15 male subjects for medium-term high-caloric diet study and 11 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls.

Field strength/sequence: A 3 T; chemical-shift encoded multiecho gradient echo sequence.

Assessment: For the intraday study, subjects were scanned after overnight fasting and after a high fat meal on the same day. For the medium-term study, 26 subjects were scanned after overnight fasting with 15/11 rescanned after 5 days of high-calorie diet/isocaloric diet. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) maps were generated inline on the scanner. Regions of interest were manually drawn in head, body, and tail of pancreas and in the liver by a medical physicist and a doctoral student (26/4 years of experience). PF was calculated as the average of the head, body, and tail measurements.

Statistical tests: Repeated measurements ANOVA for assessing changes in PF/IHL, linear correlation analyses for assessing relationships of PF/IHL with BMI. Significance level P < 0.05 for all.

Results: Nonsignificant changes in PF (2.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.7 ± 0.9% after high-fat meal, 1.4 ± 0.8 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6% [high-caloric diet] and 1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.8 ± 1.0% [isocaloric control group]), nonsignificant changes in IHL after high-fat meal (2.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.9%) and in the control group (1.1 ± 0.6 vs. 1.2 ± 1.1%), significantly increased IHL after high-caloric diet (1.7 ± 2.2% vs. 2.7 ± 3.6%). Nonsignificant changes in PF (2.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.7 ± 0.9% after high-fat meal, 1.4 ± 0.8 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6% [high-caloric diet] and 1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.8 ± 1.0% [isocaloric control group]), nonsignificant changes in IHL after high-fat meal (2.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.9%) and in the control group (1.1 ± 0.6 vs. 1.2 ± 1.1%), significantly increased IHL after 5-days of high-caloric diet (1.7 ± 2.2% vs. 2.7 ± 3.6%).

Data conclusion: Time of day and nutritional status have no significant influence on PF/IHL and are therefore not likely to be major confounders in epidemiologic or clinical studies.

Evidence level: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1.

Keywords: CSE-based MRI; PDFF; liver; pancreas; variabilities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Liver* / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver* / metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Pancreas / diagnostic imaging
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Protons*

Substances

  • Protons