In 2021, 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (PCV20) (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals LLC, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.) and 15-valent PCV (PCV15) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.) were licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for adults aged ≥18 years, based on studies that compared antibody responses to PCV20 and PCV15 with those to 13-valent PCV (PCV13) (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals LLC, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.). Antibody responses to two additional serotypes included in PCV15 were compared to corresponding responses after PCV13 vaccination, and antibody responses to seven additional serotypes included in PCV20 were compared with those to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.). On October 20, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of either PCV20 alone or PCV15 in series with PPSV23 for all adults aged ≥65 years, and for adults aged 19-64 years with certain underlying medical conditions or other risk factors* who have not previously received a PCV or whose previous vaccination history is unknown. ACIP employed the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) framework,† using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)§ approach to guide its deliberations regarding use of these vaccines. Before this, PCV13 and PPSV23 were recommended for use for U.S. adults and the recommendations varied by age and risk groups. This was simplified in the new recommendations.