COVID-19 and vitamin D (Co-VIVID study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2022 Jun;20(6):907-913. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2022.2035217. Epub 2022 Feb 3.


Introduction: Vitamin D levels have been reported to be associated with COVID-19 susceptibility, severity, and mortality events. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the use of vitamin D intervention on COVID-19 outcomes.

Areas covered: Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane library, and databases. We included RCTs reporting the use of vitamin D intervention to control/placebo group in COVID-19. The study was registered at PROSPERO: CRD42021271461.

Expert opinion: A total of 6 RCTs with 551 COVID-19 patients were included. The overall collective evidence pooling all the outcomes across all RCTs indicated the beneficial use of vitamin D intervention in COVID-19 (relative risk, RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.92, Z = 2.33, p = 0.02, I2 = 48%). The rates of RT-CR positivity were significantly decreased in the intervention group as compared to the non-vitamin D groups (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.89, Z = 2.31, p = 0.02, I2 = 0%). Conclusively, COVID-19 patients supplemented with vitamin D are more likely to demonstrate fewer rates of ICU admission, mortality events, and RT-PCR positivity.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cholecalciferol; SARS-cov-2; randomized controlled trial; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Cause of Death
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D