Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) were originally developed as glucose-lowering agents. These medications function by inhibiting glucose and sodium reabsorption in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule. Early clinical trials in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suggested a significant improvement in kidney and cardiovascular outcomes with SGLT2i therapy. Since then, SGLT2is have become a mainstay treatment for adult patients with CKD. A growing body of research has explored deploying these medications in new clinical contexts and investigated the mechanisms underlying their physiologic effects. However, patients under the age of 18 years have been largely excluded from all major trials of SGLT2i. This review aims to summarize the available clinical evidence, physiology, and mechanisms relating to SGLT2is to inform discussions about their implementation in pediatrics.
Keywords: Mechanisms; Pediatric CKD; SGLT2 inhibitor.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to International Pediatric Nephrology Association.