Neurotoxic effects of aluminium exposure as a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease

Pharmacol Rep. 2022 Jun;74(3):439-450. doi: 10.1007/s43440-022-00353-4. Epub 2022 Jan 27.


Aluminium is one of the most widely distributed elements of the Earth's crust. Its routine use has resulted in excessive human exposure and due to the potential neurotoxic effects has attained a huge interest in recent years. Despite its ubiquitous abundance, aluminium has no crucial biological functions in the human body. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory effects are attributed to its neurotoxic manifestations implicated in Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we have discussed the neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative events in the brain induced by aluminium exposure. We have highlighted the neurotoxic events caused by aluminium, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammatory events, calcium dyshomeostasis, Aβ deposition, and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the brain. In addition, the protective measures needed for prevention of aluminium-induced neuronal dysregulations have also been discussed.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Calcium dyshomeostasis; Chelation therapy; Neurodegeneration; Neuroinflammation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / toxicity
  • Alzheimer Disease* / chemically induced
  • Alzheimer Disease* / complications
  • Humans
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes* / etiology
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Risk Factors


  • Aluminum