Celiac disease is an immune-mediated illness to gluten exposure in genetically susceptible patients. It is characterized by chronic lymphocytic inflammation of the small bowel leading to villous atrophy and its associated complications. The global prevalence of celiac disease is increasing, due in part to improved screening tests and simplified diagnostic criteria. Novel therapies are being developed and include proteolytic enzymes, sequestering agents, and immunotherapies. A strict gluten-free diet, however, remains the mainstay of treatment. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the epidemiology, definitions, diagnosis, and treatment of celiac disease.
Keywords: celiac disease; diagnosis; gluten sensitivity; gluten-free diet; primary care.
© 2022 Pedro Cortés et al., published by Sciendo.