Oral contraceptive pill and metabolic syndrome: Fasa Persian Cohort Study (Descriptive study)

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2022 Feb;16(2):102408. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2022.102408. Epub 2022 Jan 20.


Background and aims: The contraceptive use is 56% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is 30% in Iran. The aim of this study investigates relationship between oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use and MetS in women in the cohort population of Fasa city.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 5489 women aged 35-70 years were studied for 5 years in the Sheshdeh area in 2016. MetS were calculated using adult treatment panel III (ATP III) and international diabetes federation (IDF) methods. The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported. Linear regression was used to eliminate the confounding effect.

Results: The OR of developing MetS in the OCP recipients was estimated as higher than the non-recipients. The OR of developing MetS using IDF criteria in OCP recipients was (OR = 0.896,95% CI:0.800-1.004). that increased to (OR = 1.230,95% CI:1.084-1.395) after adjusting for confounding variables. Also, the odds ratio using ATP (III) criteria was (OR = 0.900,95% CI:0.804-1.009). that increased to (OR = 1.245,95% CI:1.098-1.413) after adjusting for confounding variables. Also, the OR of developing MetS in OCP recipients decreased with increasing the number of MetS components from 1.199 to 0.812,95% CI:0.771-1.864,0.467-1.413, but after adjustment, increased from 1.151 to 1.747,95% CI:0.733-1.805,0.815-3.746.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the OR of developing MetS in OCP recipients using both IDF and ATP (III) methods was higher after adjusting by confounder effects so it is recommended monitoring by physicians.

Keywords: Contraceptive pills; Metabolic syndrome; Moderator effect; Pregnancy; Women.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Contraceptives, Oral / adverse effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors


  • Contraceptives, Oral