Regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) have gained considerable attention in the last few years. This is mainly due to their condition- and tissue-specific expression and their various modes of action, which suggests them as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets. One important mechanism of ncRNAs to regulate gene expression is through translation of short open reading frames (sORFs). These sORFs can be located in lncRNAs, in non-translated regions of mRNAs where upstream ORFs (uORFs) represent the majority, or in circRNAs. Regulation of their translation can function as a quick way to adapt protein production to changing cellular or environmental cues, and can either depend solely on the initiation and elongation of translation, or on the roles of the produced functional peptides. Due to the experimental challenges to pinpoint translation events and to detect the produced peptides, translational regulation through regulatory RNAs is not well studied yet. In the case of circRNAs, they have only recently started to be recognized as regulatory molecules instead of mere artifacts of RNA biosynthesis. Of the many roles described for regulatory ncRNAs, we will focus here on their regulation during inflammation and in immunity.
Keywords: immunology; inflammation; non-coding RNA; regulation; translation.
© 2022 The Authors. Allergy published by European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.