The emergence of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis: a review of cases from 18 countries

Lancet Microbe. 2022 Jul;3(7):e543-e552. doi: 10.1016/S2666-5247(21)00237-8. Epub 2022 Jan 25.


Reports of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis have been increasing in frequency since early 2021, particularly among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Patients with diabetes and hyperglycaemia often have an inflammatory state that could be potentiated by the activation of antiviral immunity to SARS-CoV2, which might favour secondary infections. In this Review, we analysed 80 published and unpublished cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Uncontrolled diabetes, as well as systemic corticosteroid treatment, were present in most patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis, and rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis was the most frequent disease. Mortality was high at 49%, which was particularly due to patients with pulmonary or disseminated mucormycosis or cerebral involvement. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients who survived had life-changing morbidities (eg, loss of vision in 46% of survivors). Our Review indicates that COVID-19-associated mucormycosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis is particularly challenging, and might be frequently missed in India.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Mucormycosis* / complications
  • RNA, Viral
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • RNA, Viral