Background: Identifying geographic locations most affected by the HIV epidemic is essential to addressing disparities that impact people living with HIV. This study sought to identify individual and neighborhood-level factors that are associated with residing in geographic hotspots of poor sustained HIV viral suppression.
Methods: Using data from the Miami-Dade County Ryan White HIV/AIDS program, spatial autocorrelation of poor sustained viral suppression (at least 1 laboratory test ≥ 200 copies/ml in 2017) was investigated using Global Moran's I followed by Local Moran's I and Getis Ord Gi* statistics by ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs). Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with residing in geographic hotspots of poor sustained viral suppression.
Results: Several ZCTAs in the northern part of the county, accounting for 1/3 of the Ryan White program clients, had significantly higher clustering of poor sustained viral suppression. Client-level sociodemographic characteristics such as race/ethnicity, age, and poverty, and neighborhood-level characteristics (socioeconomic disadvantage index, residential instability index, and racial/language homogeneity index) were significantly associated with living in a hotspot of poor sustained viral suppression.
Conclusion: These findings highlight that spatial variation in sustained viral suppression exists within the county. Targeted strategies that address structural factors and the needs of people with HIV living in specified geographic areas may improve their HIV health outcomes and contribute towards local, regional, and national goals of ending the HIV epidemic.
Keywords: Geographic disparities; HIV/AIDS; Hotspots/cold spots; Neighborhood-level factors; Spatial autocorrelation; Sustained viral suppression.
© 2022. W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute.