Evaluation of Female Fertility-AMH and Ovarian Reserve Testing

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022 May 17;107(6):1510-1519. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgac039.


Context: Evaluation of the infertile female requires an understanding of ovulation and biomarkers of ovarian reserve. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) correlates with growing follicles in a menstrual cycle. Increasingly, AMH has been used as a "fertility test." This narrative review describes how to integrate the use of AMH into diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to find recent literature on measurements and use of serum AMH as a marker of ovarian reserve and in treatment of infertility.

Results: Serum AMH estimates ovarian reserve, helps determine dosing in ovarian stimulation, and predicts stimulation response. As such, AMH is a good marker of oocyte quantity but does not reflect oocyte health or chances for pregnancy. Screening of AMH before fertility treatment should be used to estimate expected response and not to withhold treatment. Low AMH levels may suggest a shortened reproductive window. AMH levels must be interpreted in the context of the endogenous endocrine environment where low follicle-stimulating hormone, due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or hormonal contraceptive use, may lower AMH without being a true reflection of ovarian reserve. In addition, there is an inverse correlation between body mass index and AMH that does not reflect ovarian response.

Conclusion: AMH is a useful marker of ovarian reserve in reproductive-aged women. Increased screening of noninfertile women requires a thorough knowledge of situations that may affect AMH levels. In no situation does AMH reflect oocyte health or chances for conception. Age is still the strongest driver in determining success rates with fertility treatments.

Keywords: AMH; female infertility; ovarian reserve.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • Biomarkers
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Female* / diagnosis
  • Infertility, Female* / therapy
  • Ovarian Follicle / physiology
  • Ovarian Reserve* / physiology
  • Ovulation Induction
  • Pregnancy


  • Biomarkers
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone

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