Diselenide-selenoester ligation in the chemical synthesis of proteins

Methods Enzymol. 2022;662:363-399. doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2021.10.017. Epub 2021 Dec 7.


Peptides and proteins represent an important class of biomolecules responsible for a plethora of structural and functional roles in vivo. Following their translation on the ribosome, the majority of eukaryotic proteins are post-translationally modified, leading to a proteome that is much larger than the number of genes present in a given organism. In order to understand the functional role of a given protein modification, it is necessary to access peptides and proteins bearing homogeneous and site-specific modifications. Accordingly, there has been significant research effort centered on the development of peptide ligation methodologies for the chemical synthesis of modified proteins. In this chapter we outline the discovery and development of a contemporary methodology called the diselenide-selenoester ligation (DSL) that enables the rapid and efficient fusion of peptide fragments to generate synthetic proteins. The practical aspects of using DSL for the preparation of chemically modified peptides and proteins in the laboratory is described. In addition, recent advances in the application of the methodology are outlined, exemplified by the synthesis and biological evaluation of a number of complex protein targets.

Keywords: Chemical protein synthesis; Deselenization; Diselenide-selenoester ligation; Native chemical ligation; Post-translational modifications; Solid-phase peptide synthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Peptides* / chemistry
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Proteins* / chemistry


  • Peptides
  • Proteins