Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma with bone and soft tissue involvement with favorable response to pamidronate: a case report and systematic review of the literature

Arch Osteoporos. 2022 Feb 1;17(1):28. doi: 10.1007/s11657-022-01062-4.


Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PMH) can be a challenge for diagnosis and might be confused with other tumors, such as epithelioid sarcoma. Here we present a case and a systematic review of the literature to identify and discuss PMH treatment in primary bone involvement. A 25-year-old woman was referred for bone pain (10/10) in the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple bone lesions (left femur, tibia, patella, ankle, and foot) with well-defined borders without signs of local aggressiveness. Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) showed multiple metabolic musculoskeletal lesions in the left lower limb. A CT scan-guided biopsy was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis of PMH. After treatment with intravenous pamidronate (90 mg/monthly), the patient had clinical improvement, mild pain 2/10 without the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opiates. Follow-up was assessed by MRI and PET-CT. PET-CT showed metabolic resolution of most of the bone and muscular lesions and a significant improvement of the femoral lesion. MRI showed that the lesions in the left femur, tibia, and foot had a marked decrease in size without intravenous post-contrast enhancement and smaller lesions had disappeared. After a 3-year follow-up, PET-CT showed no metabolically active images. Literature review identified 31 records including 58 clinical cases of PMH with primary bone involvement and treatment description for qualitative analysis. Most lesions (69%) were treated by local excision or curettage. In addition, amputations were performed in a significant percentage of cases (20.7%). In the last years, mTOR inhibitors (n = 7) and anti-resorptive treatments (n = 4) were considered as alternative treatment options, especially in multifocal lesions.

Keywords: Bone involvement; Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma; Systematic review; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bone and Bones / pathology
  • Female
  • Hemangioendothelioma* / pathology
  • Hemangioendothelioma* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Pamidronate / therapeutic use
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography*


  • Pamidronate