Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a rare type of cardiomyopathy, and one of its clinical manifestations is arrhythmia. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is valuable for the diagnosis and prognosis of LVNC. However, studies are lacking on the use of CMR for LVNC patients with arrhythmia. This study aimed to characterize and compare CMR features and prognosis in LVNC patients with and without arrhythmia.
Methods: Eighty-four LVNC patients diagnosed by CMR were enrolled retrospectively in this study. Clinical data, arrhythmia characteristics, and CMR parameters were collected. Patients were divided into different groups according to the arrhythmia characteristics and CMR manifestations for statistical analysis and comparison. Ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (Vf), ventricular flutter (VFL), III° atrioventricular block (III° AVB), Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and ventricular escape (VE) were defined as malignant arrhythmias and benign arrhythmias included premature ventricular contraction, atrial premature beats, atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, supraventricular premature beat, bundle branch block, atrial flutter and sinus tachycardia. The outcome events were defined as a composition event of cardiac death, rehospitalization for heart failure, heart transplantation, and implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).
Results: Sixty-seven LVNC patients (79.76%) mainly presented with arrhythmia, including premature ventricular beat (33 patients [27.73%]), bundle branch block (14 patients [11.77%]), electrocardiogram waveform changes (18 patients [15.13%]), and ventricular tachycardia (11 patients [9.24%]). The cardiac function and structure parameters had no significant difference among the nonarrhythmia group, benign arrhythmia group, and malignant arrhythmia group. However, the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was higher in the malignant arrhythmia group than in the other two groups (p = 0.023). At a mean follow-up of 46 months, cardiac events occurred in twenty-three patients (46.94%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference in prognosis among the nonarrhythmia, benign, and malignant arrhythmia groups, but the patients with arrhythmia and association with LGE + or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 30% had a higher risk than patients with LGE- or LVEF > 30% (LGE +, HR = 4.035, 95% CI 1.475-11.035; LVEF < 30%, HR = 8.131, 95% CI 1.805-36.636; P < 0.05).
Conclusions: In LVNC patients, the types of arrhythmias are numerous and unrepresentative, and arrhythmia is not the prognostic factor. Arrhythmia combined with presence of LGE or LVEF < 30% is associated with poor prognosis in LVNC patients.
Keywords: Arrhythmia; Cardiac magnetic resonance; Left ventricular noncompaction; Prognosis.
© 2022. The Author(s).