The Role of Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adult Turkish Population: TurkCAP Study

Turk Thorac J. 2021 Jul;22(4):339-345. doi: 10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2021.20223.


Objective: To evaluate the rate of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Turkey and to investigate and compare features of PP and non-PP CAP patients.

Material and methods: This multicenter, non-interventional, prospective, observational study included adult CAP patients (age ≥ 18 years). Diagnosis of PP was based on the presence of at least 1 positive laboratory test result for Streptococcus pneumoniae (blood culture or sputum culture or urinary antigen test [UAT]) in patients with radiographic findings of pneumonia.

Results: Four hundred sixty-five patients were diagnosed with CAP, of whom 59 (12.7%) had PP. The most common comorbidity was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (30.1%). The mean age, smoking history, presence of chronic neurological disease, and CURB-65 score were significantly higher in PP patients, when compared to non-PP patients. In PP patients, 84.8% were diagnosed based ony on the UAT. The overall rate of PP patients among CAP was calculated as 22.8% considering the UAT sensitivity ratio of 63% (95% confidence interval: 45-81). The rate of intensive care treatment was higher in PP patients (P = .007). While no PP patients were vaccinated for pneumococcus, 3.8% of the non-PP patients were vaccinated (P = .235). Antibiotic use in the preceding 48 hours was higher in the non-PP group than in the PP group (31.8% vs. 11.1%, P = .002). The CURB-65 score and the rate of patients requiring inpatient treatment according to this score were higher in the PP group.

Conclusion: The facts that PP patients were older and required intensive care treatment more frequently as compared to non-PP patients underline the burden of PP.

Grants and funding

This work was supported by Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Turkey.