Micro-testicular sperm extraction outcomes for non-obstructive azoospermia in a single large clinic in Victoria

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 Apr;62(2):300-305. doi: 10.1111/ajo.13477. Epub 2022 Feb 2.


Aims: To evaluate the results of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA).

Materials and methods: We retrospectively analysed data of 88 consecutive patients with clinical NOA who were treated with micro-TESE by a single surgeon, between August 2014 and September 2020, in Melbourne, Victoria. Upon a successful sperm retrieval, sperm was either used fresh for ICSI, frozen for future use or both. The outcome measures were sperm retrieval rate (SRR), and in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/ICSI results. Furthermore, SRR was calculated for the predominant causes and histopathological patterns.

Results: The overall SRR was 61.2%. It was significantly higher in patients with a history of cryptorchidism and other childhood diseases (100%) than in the other NOA groups (P < 0.05). Patients with Klinefelter syndrome had a 75% SRR. Among the different types of testicular histology, the highest SRR were noted in patients with complete hyalinisation (100%) and hypospermatogenesis (92.9%), and low with Sertoli cell-only syndrome (46.3%). The SRR has significantly increased from 33.3% in 2015-2016 to 73.6% in 2019-2020 (P = 0.009). Of the 52 patients with SSR, 47 underwent IVF/ICSI. Fertilisation rate was 42.4%. Twenty-nine couples achieved at least one good-quality embryo and had embryo transfer. Nineteen achieved pregnancy (40.4%), and in three patients a miscarriage resulted.

Conclusions: This is the first report from Australia showing that micro-TESE is an effective treatment for NOA with high SRR. The increasing success rates over several years indicate the importance of surgical skill and laboratory staff experience.

Keywords: azoospermia, non-obstructive [supplementary concept]; infertility, male; reproductive techniques; sperm injections, intracytoplasmic; sperm retrieval.

MeSH terms

  • Azoospermia* / etiology
  • Azoospermia* / surgery
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sperm Retrieval / adverse effects
  • Spermatozoa / pathology
  • Victoria

Supplementary concepts

  • Azoospermia, Nonobstructive