Several methods are available for subscapularis management in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). The goal of this study was to compare radiographic and clinical outcomes of short-stem TSA stratified by subscapularis management technique. A multicenter trial was completed evaluating primary short-stem TSA performed with a subscapularis peel (n=80) or lesser tuberosity osteotomy (LTO) (n=59). The primary outcome measure was subscapularis function, as measured by internal rotation and strength at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported outcomes, radiographic changes, and implant loosening. Patients in the peel group obtained better active internal rotation by spinal level (P=.004). No difference was seen between groups for internal rotation with 90° shoulder abduction (P=.862) or belly press (P=.903). Statistically significant improvements in functional outcomes were seen without clinical differences. Radiographic changes showed no difference in stem shift, subsidence, or at-risk loosening rate. Anterior subluxation of the humerus was observed among 2% of the LTO group vs 17% of the peel group (P=.006). At short-term follow-up, those in the peel group appear to have a better final spinal level of internal rotation, whereas those in the LTO group have a significantly lower rate of anterior humeral subluxation. Both LTO and subscapularis peel appear safe for short-stem TSA, with no radiographic evidence of loosening. [Orthopedics. 2022;45(3):151-155.].