Associations Between Diabetic Retinopathy and Parkinson's Disease: Results From the Catalonian Primary Care Cohort Study

Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Jan 18;8:800973. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.800973. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD) among subjects with type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in our large primary health care database from Catalonia (Spain). A retrospective cohort study with pseudo-anonymized routinely collected health data from SIDIAP was conducted from 2008 to 2016. We calculated the number of events, time to event, cumulative incidence, and incidence rates of PD for subjects with and without DR and for different stages of DR. The proportional hazards regression analysis was done to assess the probability of occurrence between DR and PD. In total, 26,453 type 2 diabetic subjects with DR were identified in the database, and 216,250 subjects without DR at inclusion. During the follow-up period, 1,748 PD events occurred. PD incidence rate and cumulative incidence were higher among subjects with DR (16.95 per 10,000 person-years and 0.83%, respectively). In the unadjusted analysis, subjects with DR were at 1.25 times higher risk (hazard ratio: 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.41) of developing PD during the study period. However, we did not find any statistically significant HR for DR in any models after adjusting for different risk factors (age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin, comorbidities). In conclusion, in our primary health care population database, DR was not associated with an increased risk of PD after adjusting for different risk factors. In our retrospective cohort study, age, male sex, and diabetes duration were independent risk factors for developing PD.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease; age; diabetes type 2; diabetic retinopathy; primary care; real world data (RWD).