Efficient biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A by the novel strain Enterobacter sp. T2 with good environmental adaptation: Kinetics, pathways and genomic characteristics

J Hazard Mater. 2022 May 5;429:128335. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128335. Epub 2022 Jan 26.


T2, a gram-positive bacterium capable of rapidly degrading tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and affiliated with the genus Enterobacter, was isolated for the first time from sludge that had been contaminated for several years. The TBBPA degradation data fitted the first-order model well. Under optimal conditions (pH of 7, temperature of 31 °C, TBBPA concentration of 5 mg L-1, and inoculum size of 5%), 99.4% of the initially added TBBPA was degraded after 48 h. TBBPA degradation fitted the first-order model with the half-life of 3.3 h. These results illustrated that the TBBPA degradation capability of strain T2 was significantly better than that of previously reported bacteria. A total of 17 intermediates were detected, among which five were reported for the first time. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that strain T2 had a chromosome with the total length of 4 854 376 bp and a plasmid with the total length of 21 444 bp. It harbored essential genes responsible for debromination, such as cyp450, gstB, gstA, and HADH, and genes responsible for subsequent complete mineralization, such as bioC, yrrM, Tam, and Ubil. A key protein of haloacid dehalogenases responsible for the biodegradation of TBBPA may also be involved in the regulation of TBBPA degradation in natural environment. In soil bioremediation experiments, strain T2 showed excellent environmental adaptation. It was able to biodegrade TBBPA and its typical intermediate bisphenol A efficiently. Therefore, it could potentially be applied to treat TBBPA-contaminated sites.

Keywords: Biodegradation; Enterobacter. sp; Environmental adaptation; Pathway; Tetrabromobisphenol A.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Enterobacter* / genetics
  • Enterobacter* / metabolism
  • Genomics
  • Kinetics
  • Polybrominated Biphenyls* / metabolism


  • Polybrominated Biphenyls
  • tetrabromobisphenol A