Chronic pain with its comorbidities, such as depression, insomnia, and social deprivation, is a major cause of disability and health-economic burden. Insufficient response to pain medication and potentially serious adverse effects have led the majority of chronic pain patients to seek relief from non-pharmacological remedies. Along with this trend, pain research has paid increasing interest in critical evaluation of various complementary treatments. Music-based treatments have emerged as an efficacious and safe means to enhance the management of acute and chronic pain. We review the current position of music-based interventions in the treatment of chronic pain and present explanations for the analgesic effects of music through modulation of the primary nociception and discuss the contribution of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system to the affective component of pain perception. We propose ways to translate the novel theoretical understanding into clinical practice in different health care settings, primary health care in particular, and discuss the preconditions of successful implementation. We argue that music interventions provide low-cost, easily applicable complementary pain treatments not requiring heavy utilization of health care resources. Finally, we provide research and quality improvement frameworks and make suggestions to cover the gaps of existing evidence. PERSPECTIVE: This article addresses the current evidence for analgesic effects of music interventions, discusses its neurobiological basis and evaluates potential use of music in treating chronic pain patients in different health care settings. We also propose directions for future research to cover shortages in the currently published data.
Keywords: Chronic pain; music; music interventions; music-induced analgesia; neuropathic pain.
Copyright © 2022 United States Association for the Study of Pain, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.