Objective: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been found to be associated with encephalopathy and brain imaging abnormalities. The identification of incident white matter lesions, known to be associated with cerebral microcirculatory failure and cerebrovascular disease, in COVID-19 patients is of clinical and scientific interest. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the incidence of white matter lesions (WMLs) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on brain imaging abnormalities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The terms used included "white matter lesions," "white matter hyperintensity," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," and "SARS-CoV-2." A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to obtain a pooled estimate of WML prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Results: A total of 4 eligible studies involving 362 patients (144 with WMLs and 218 without) were included in the meta-analysis. We found the pooled estimate of WML prevalence to be 20% (ES 0.20; 95% CI 0.00-0.54; p = .03).
Conclusions: The estimated pooled prevalence rate of WMLs was approximately 20% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, albeit lower than the crude prevalence rate (39.8%).
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; cerebrovascular disease; leukoaraiosis; microcirculation; stroke; white matter lesions.
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.