Hearing impairment and ear anomalies in craniofacial microsomia: a systematic review

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2022 Oct;51(10):1296-1304. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2022.01.005. Epub 2022 Feb 3.


The aim of this systematic review was to review the literature on hearing impairment and ear anomalies in patients with craniofacial microsomia and to determine their prevalence. Sixty-two records including 5122 patients were included. Ear anomalies were present in 52-100% of patients. The most reported external ear malformations were microtia, pre-auricular tags, and atresia of the external auditory canal. Ossicular anomalies were the most reported middle ear malformations, whereas the most reported inner ear malformations included oval window anomalies, cochlear anomalies, and anomalies of the semicircular canals. Hearing loss in general was reported in 29-100% of patients, which comprised conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, and sensorineural hearing loss. Between 21% and 51% of patients used hearing aids, and 58% underwent a surgical intervention to improve hearing. The relationship between different phenotypes of craniofacial microsomia and the type and severity of hearing loss is mostly unclear. In conclusion, the high prevalence of ear and hearing anomalies in patients with craniofacial microsomia underlines the importance of audiological screening in order to facilitate individual treatment.

Keywords: Goldenhar syndrome; congenital microtia; craniofacial microsomia; ear; hearing loss.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Goldenhar Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Hearing Loss*
  • Hearing Loss, Conductive / epidemiology
  • Hearing Loss, Sensorineural* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Phenotype
  • Retrospective Studies