Smokeless Tobacco Use and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Among Males in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, Waves 1-4

Prev Med Rep. 2021 Nov 30;25:101650. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101650. eCollection 2022 Feb.

Abstract

The purpose of this period prevalence study is to compare the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in current/former established smokeless tobacco (SLT) users (ever SLT users who have used the product fairly regularly) to those who were: 1) never established cigarette smokers and SLT users, and 2) current/former established exclusive cigarette smokers (have smoked at least a 100 or more cigarettes in lifetime) only, adjusting for known risk factors for CVD. Analyses included 4,703 men ≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, Waves: 1-4, conducted between 2013 and 2017. Current users were those using SLT products daily or on some days, whereas former users had not used SLT and/or cigarettes in the past 12 months. CVD prevalence was defined as a self-reported diagnosis of congestive heart failure, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Among current/former established SLT users, years of use defined exposure history, while pack-years defined exposure history for smokers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported with trend tests to examine dose-response associations. Current/former established exclusive SLT users were not significantly more likely to have had any CVD compared to never established cigarette and SLT users (OR = 1.7 [0.8-3.7]), or current/former established exclusive cigarette smokers (OR = 0.9 [0.5-1.8]). Current/former established exclusive cigarette smokers were more likely to have had any CVD compared to those who were never established cigarette and SLT users (OR = 1.6 [1.1-2.3]).

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Cigarette smoking; Dose–response; Smokeless tobacco.