The role of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on female fertility: A review

Int J Environ Health Res. 2023 Apr;33(4):358-373. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2022.2030676. Epub 2022 Feb 8.


With increasing technological developments, exposure to non-ionizing radiations has become unavoidable as people cannot escape from electromagnetic field sources, such as Wi-Fi, electric wires, microwave oven, radio, telecommunication, bluetooth devices, etc. These radiations can be associated with increased health problems of the users. This review aims to determine the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations on female fertility. To date, several in vitro and in vivo studies unveiled that exposure to non-ionizing radiations brings about harmful effects on oocytes, ovarian follicles, endometrial tissue, estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, developing embryo, and fetal development in animal models. Non-ionizing radiation also upsurges the free radical load in the uterus and ovary, which leads to inhibition of cell growth and DNA disruptions. In conclusion, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations can cause alterations in both germ cells as well as in their nourishing environment and also affect other female reproductive parameters that might lead to infertility.

Keywords: Electromagnetic radiations; female fertility; non-Ionizing radiations; ovarian follicles; reproduction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Electromagnetic Fields* / adverse effects
  • Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Reproduction*