A Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Livestock and Poultry Worldwide

Ecohealth. 2022 Mar;19(1):55-74. doi: 10.1007/s10393-022-01575-x. Epub 2022 Feb 8.


Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis with a global prevalence in the world. A large proportion of human illness is most frequently associated with consuming raw and undercooked meat or other animal products containing infective parasitic stages of T. gondii. This systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle, sheep, camels, goats, and poultry worldwide. The search was performed in databases including PubMed, WoS, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and ISC from 2000 to 2019 in Persian and English. The main inclusion criteria were the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among livestock and poultry and the prevalence indices by sample size. During these 20 years, the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in livestock and poultry was 28.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-31.9%) using the random-effects meta-analysis model. The highest prevalence of T. gondii in livestock and poultry animals was found in Asia in 2014 with 89.8% (95% CI 78.5-95.5%). The lowest prevalence was found in Asia in 2013 with 1.26% (95% CI 0.4-3.8%). A quarter of livestock and poultry were infected with T. gondii. Since livestock products are globally important sources of people's diet, our findings are useful for policymakers to control T. gondii infection in livestock.

Keywords: Livestock animals; Prevalence; Systematic review; Toxoplasma gondii; Worldwide.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Cattle
  • Humans
  • Livestock
  • Poultry
  • Prevalence
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Sheep
  • Toxoplasma*
  • Toxoplasmosis, Animal* / epidemiology


  • Antibodies, Protozoan