Association between common cardiovascular risk factors and clinical phenotype in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) EurObservational Research Programme (EORP) Cardiomyopathy/Myocarditis registry

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2022 Dec 13;9(1):42-53. doi: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcac006.


Aims: The interaction between common cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is poorly studied. We sought to explore the relation between CVRF and the clinical characteristics of patients with HCM enrolled in the EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) Cardiomyopathy registry.

Methods and results: 1739 patients with HCM were studied. The relation between hypertension (HT), diabetes (DM), body mass index (BMI), and clinical traits was analysed. Analyses were stratified according to the presence or absence of a pathogenic variant in a sarcomere gene. The prevalence of HT, DM, and obesity (Ob) was 37, 10, and 21%, respectively. HT, DM, and Ob were associated with older age (P<0.001), less family history of HCM (HT and DM P<0.001), higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P<0.001), atrial fibrillation (HT and DM P<0.001; Ob p = 0.03) and LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction (HT and Ob P<0.001; DM P = 0.003). Stroke was more frequent in HT (P<0.001) and mutation-positive patients with DM (P = 0.02). HT and Ob were associated with higher provocable LV outflow tract gradients (HT P<0.001, Ob P = 0.036). LV hypertrophy was more severe in Ob (P = 0.018). HT and Ob were independently associated with NYHA class (OR 1.419, P = 0.017 and OR 1.584, P = 0.004, respectively). Other associations, including a higher proportion of females in HT and of systolic dysfunction in HT and Ob, were observed only in mutation-positive patients.

Conclusion: Common CVRF are associated with a more severe HCM phenotype, suggesting a proactive management of CVRF should be promoted. An interaction between genotype and CVRF was observed for some traits.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors; Diabetes; Genotype; Hypertension; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathies* / complications
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / complications
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / epidemiology
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / genetics
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / genetics
  • Female
  • Heart Disease Risk Factors
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left* / complications