Methods of Blood Pressure Measurement to Predict Hypertension-Related Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2022 Apr;24(4):439-444. doi: 10.1007/s11886-022-01661-0. Epub 2022 Feb 9.


Purpose of review: As the evidence on different blood pressure phenotypes and their cardiovascular risks evolve, it is imperative to evaluate the reliability of office blood pressure (OBP), ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), and home blood pressure (HBP) measurements and their associations with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Recent findings: HBP is more reliable in diagnosis of hypertension than OBP or ABP. HBP correlates better with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Increasing systolic HBP is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events. An elevated systolic ABP is also associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. ABP is a better predictor of cardiovascular events than OBP in diabetics. ABP and HBP furnish additional information beyond OBP. They correlate better with cardiovascular outcomes and are more helpful with monitoring therapy than OBP. Comparative effectiveness studies of all three methods associating with cardiovascular outcomes are warranted.

Keywords: Ambulatory blood pressure; Blood pressure measurements; Cardiovascular risk factor; Home blood pressure; Hypertension; Left ventricular mass; Office blood pressure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Blood Pressure Determination / methods
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Reproducibility of Results