Background: Prior reports from small studies suggested an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Large population-based contemporary studies evaluating this association are lacking.
Methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the US Nationwide Readmissions Database year 2014, IBD patients ≥ 15 years of age were identified. Outcomes analyzed were the differences in the rates of diagnosed respiratory diseases between IBD and age- and sex-matched non-IBD control groups, and between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD).
Results: The IBD study cohort and the matched non-IBD control group had 87,506 patients each (mean age, 52 years; 57% females). In patients with IBD, obstructive respiratory diseases were the most prevalent (asthma, 8.6%; and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 8.7%) followed by pleural diseases (1.9%). Compared with the non-IBD cohort, patients with IBD had a 46% higher rate of bronchiectasis, 52% higher rate of pulmonary vasculitis and interstitial pneumonia, 35% higher risk for lung nodules, 16% higher rate of pulmonary fibrosis, and a 5.5% higher rate of asthma. Among patients with IBD, patients with CD, compared with UC, had a 34% lower age/sex-adjusted risk for bronchiectasis, 56% lower risk for pulmonary vasculitis, 14% lower risk for pleural diseases, and approximately 30% higher risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study, patients with IBD had higher rates of certain respiratory diseases compared with the general population without IBD, and significant differences were present between CD and UC.
Keywords: Airway; Crohn disease; Inflammatory bowel disease; Prevalence; Pulmonary; Respiratory; Ulcerative colitis.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.