Prevalence of Pulmonary Diseases in Association with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Nov;67(11):5187-5194. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07385-z. Epub 2022 Feb 10.


Background: Prior reports from small studies suggested an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Large population-based contemporary studies evaluating this association are lacking.

Methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the US Nationwide Readmissions Database year 2014, IBD patients ≥ 15 years of age were identified. Outcomes analyzed were the differences in the rates of diagnosed respiratory diseases between IBD and age- and sex-matched non-IBD control groups, and between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD).

Results: The IBD study cohort and the matched non-IBD control group had 87,506 patients each (mean age, 52 years; 57% females). In patients with IBD, obstructive respiratory diseases were the most prevalent (asthma, 8.6%; and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 8.7%) followed by pleural diseases (1.9%). Compared with the non-IBD cohort, patients with IBD had a 46% higher rate of bronchiectasis, 52% higher rate of pulmonary vasculitis and interstitial pneumonia, 35% higher risk for lung nodules, 16% higher rate of pulmonary fibrosis, and a 5.5% higher rate of asthma. Among patients with IBD, patients with CD, compared with UC, had a 34% lower age/sex-adjusted risk for bronchiectasis, 56% lower risk for pulmonary vasculitis, 14% lower risk for pleural diseases, and approximately 30% higher risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study, patients with IBD had higher rates of certain respiratory diseases compared with the general population without IBD, and significant differences were present between CD and UC.

Keywords: Airway; Crohn disease; Inflammatory bowel disease; Prevalence; Pulmonary; Respiratory; Ulcerative colitis.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Asthma* / epidemiology
  • Bronchiectasis* / complications
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cohort Studies
  • Colitis, Ulcerative* / complications
  • Colitis, Ulcerative* / diagnosis
  • Colitis, Ulcerative* / epidemiology
  • Crohn Disease* / complications
  • Crohn Disease* / diagnosis
  • Crohn Disease* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / complications
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Lung Diseases* / complications
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pleural Diseases* / complications
  • Prevalence
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / complications
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Vasculitis*