Resolving sex and gender bias in COVID-19 vaccines R&D and beyond

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022 Dec 31;18(1):2035142. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2022.2035142. Epub 2022 Feb 10.


The influence of sex and gender in immune response and vaccine outcomes is established in many disease areas, including in COVID-19. Yet, there are notable gaps in the consideration of sex and gender in the analysis and reporting of COVID-19 vaccines clinical trial data. The push for stronger sex and gender integration in vaccines science should be championed by all researchers and stakeholders across the R&D and access ecosystem - not just gender experts. This requires joint action on the tactical framing of customized value propositions (based on stakeholder motivations), the stronger enforcement of existing regulation, tools, and commitments, and aligning the overall agenda to parallel calls on intersectionality, equity diversity and inclusion.

Keywords: COVID-19; gender; sex; vaccines research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Ecosystem
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sexism
  • Vaccines*


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Vaccines