Genotype-phenotype spectrum of 130 unrelated Indian families with Mucopolysaccharidosis type II

Eur J Med Genet. 2022 Mar;65(3):104447. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104447. Epub 2022 Feb 8.


MPS II is an X linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder with multi-system involvement and marked molecular heterogeneity. In this study, we explored the clinical and molecular spectrum of 144 Indian patients with MPS II from 130 unrelated families. Clinical information was collected on a predesigned clinical proforma. Sanger method was employed to sequence all the exons and exon/intron boundaries of the IDS gene. In cases where causative variation was not detected by Sanger sequencing, MLPA and RFLP were performed to identify large deletions/duplications and complex rearrangements. Cytogenetic microarray was done in one patient to see the breakpoints and extent of deletion. In one patient with no detectable likely pathogenic or pathogenic variation, whole-genome sequencing was also performed. Novel variants were systematically assessed by in silico prediction software and protein modelling. The pathogenicity of variants was established based on ACMG criteria. An attempt was also made to establish a genotype-phenotype correlation. Positive family history was present in 31% (41/130) of patients. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were the main reasons for referral. Macrocephaly, coarse facies and dysostosis were present in almost all patients. Hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures and short stature were the characteristic features, seen in 87% (101/116), 67.8% (74/109) and 41.4% (41/99) patients respectively. Attenuated phenotype was seen in 32.6% (47/144) patients, while severe phenotype was seen in 63% (91/144) patients. The detection rate for likely pathogenic or pathogenic variants in our cohort is 95.5% (107/112) by Sanger sequencing, MLPA and RFLP. We also found two variants of unknown significance, one each by Sanger sequencing and WGS. Total of 71 variants were identified by Sanger sequencing and 29 of these variants were found to be novel. Amongst the novel variants, there was a considerable proportion (51%) of frameshift variants (15/29). Almost half of the causative variants were located in exon 3,8 and 9. A significant genotype-phenotype correlation was also noted for both known and novel variants. This information about the genotype spectrum and phenotype will be helpful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

Keywords: Hunter syndrome; IDS; Iduronate 2-sulfatase (I2S) enzyme; Lysosomal storage disorder; MPS II; Mucopolysaccharidoses; Novel variants.

MeSH terms

  • Asian People
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Iduronate Sulfatase* / genetics
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis II* / diagnosis
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis II* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype


  • Iduronate Sulfatase