Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: Clinical features and overall survival

Cancer Treat Res Commun. 2022:31:100530. doi: 10.1016/j.ctarc.2022.100530. Epub 2022 Feb 5.


Introduction: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare form of soft tissue sarcoma characterized by a unique chromosomal translocation involving the NR4A3 gene on chromosome 9. It is most frequently diagnosed in the proximal extremities of older adult males and is notable for its insidious growth with predilection for local recurrence and metastasis. Currently, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is managed with wide resection, with recent investigations supporting the utility of adjuvant radiation and novel chemotherapeutic strategies.

Methodology: A retrospective study was performed with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database, which was searched for cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma diagnosed between years 2004 and 2015. Demographic variables were assessed, as well as Collaborative Staging variables including tumor size, metastatic disease, grade, and lymph node involvement. Cases were stratified according to the anatomic site of the primary tumor and were described by therapeutic intervention. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model evaluated predictive factors for poor survival, and Kaplan-Meier analyses assessed effects of various staging, demographic, and therapeutic variables on overall survival.

Results: There were 270 cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma reviewed in this study, which were diagnosed most frequently in the lower limb or hip of older adult males. The 5-year overall survival was 76.5% and was worse on univariate assessment for patients with age > 60, high histologic grade, pelvic location, tumor size > 8.0 cm, metastatic or nodal spread, and in patients without surgical intervention. The Cox regression predicted significantly worse survival for older age, larger tumor size, non-surgical status, and high tumor grade. Metastasis did not significantly predict worse survival on multivariate assessment, and neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy provided a discernable improvement in survival in this cohort.

Discussion and conclusion: As a rare soft tissue sarcoma, many of the presenting features and survival outcomes of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma remain poorly defined due to the limited prevalence of this disease. The findings of this study suggest the overall survival may be worse than previously reported, and poor prognostic factors are those associated with worse survival in other soft tissue sarcomas, including high histologic grade, older age, larger tumor size, and lack of wide resection. Radiation and chemotherapy did not demonstrably improve survival for patients with localized or metastatic disease.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Chondrosarcoma* / diagnosis
  • Chondrosarcoma* / genetics
  • Chondrosarcoma* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue* / genetics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sarcoma* / diagnosis
  • Sarcoma* / pathology
  • Sarcoma* / therapy
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms* / surgery

Supplementary concepts

  • Chondrosarcoma, Extraskeletal Myxoid