Design and outcome measures of LAVENDER, a phase 3 study of trofinetide for Rett syndrome

Contemp Clin Trials. 2022 Mar;114:106704. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2022.106704. Epub 2022 Feb 8.


Introduction: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder with no approved treatments. Trofinetide is a synthetic analog of glycine-proline-glutamate, the N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor 1. In a phase 2, placebo-controlled trial in 82 females with RTT aged 5-15 years, a significant (p ≤ 0.042) improvement over placebo was observed with the highest trofinetide dose (200 mg/kg twice daily [BID]) on three measures: Rett Syndrome Behaviour Questionnaire (RSBQ), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), and RTT-Clinician Domain Specific Concerns-Visual Analog Scale (RTT-DSC-VAS). Trofinetide was well tolerated at all doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BID). A phase 3 trial utilizing disease-specific and novel scales was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of trofinetide in girls and women with RTT.

Methods: This 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study (LAVENDER; NCT04181723) will evaluate trofinetide in 187 females, aged 5-20 years, with RTT. Co-primary endpoints are the RSBQ and CGI-I scales. Clinical domains of the CGI-I include communication, ambulation, hand use, seizures, attentiveness, and social (eye contact) and autonomic (breathing) aspects. Secondary endpoints will leverage four novel RTT-specific clinician ratings (derived from the RTT-DSC-VAS) of hand function, ambulation, ability to communicate, and verbal communication, and existing scales, to evaluate other core symptoms of RTT, quality of life and caregiver burden. A 40-week, open-label extension study will follow.

Discussion: This study was designed using disease-specific scales optimized to demonstrate changes in core symptoms of RTT and may provide the first phase 3 data demonstrating drug efficacy in individuals with RTT.

Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.govNCT04181723.

Keywords: Caregiver rating scale; Clinician rating scale; LAVENDER; Rett Syndrome Behaviour Questionnaire; Rett syndrome; Trofinetide.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glutamates
  • Humans
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Quality of Life
  • Rett Syndrome* / drug therapy


  • Glutamates
  • trofinetide

Associated data