Bone tissue engineering: Anionic polysaccharides as promising scaffolds

Carbohydr Polym. 2022 May 1;283:119142. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119142. Epub 2022 Jan 18.


Bone repair is a self-healing process. However, critical-sized bone defects need bone augmentation where bone tissue engineering plays vital role. Bone tissue Engineering (BTE) requires unique combinations of scaffolds, cells, and bio-signal molecules. Bone scaffold materials should be biocompatible, bioresorbable and exhibit biomimetic properties. Natural polymers, acquiring cell binding motives, producing nontoxic degradation products and tunable properties are ideal materials. Anionic polysaccharides of natural origin mimic mammalian ECM components and even the group called GAGs (Glycosaminoglycan) are actual components of ECM possessing various functions including cell adhesion, cell signaling, maintenance of homeostasis and inflammation control. Among them, anionic polysaccharides provide stabilization and sustained release of growth factors (GFs), porosity, calcium phosphate nucleation site, viscoelasticity, and water retention. Therefore, anionic polysaccharides are unique biomaterials for BTE. In this review, we have summarized the highlights of bone tissue engineering and recent applications of anionic polysaccharides in BTE.

Keywords: Bone regeneration; Glycosaminoglycans; Osteogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anions / chemistry
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Biomimetic Materials / pharmacology
  • Bone Regeneration / drug effects*
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Glycosaminoglycans / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Polysaccharides / chemistry
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Porosity
  • Rats
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry*


  • Anions
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Polymers
  • Polysaccharides