Achilles tendon pain is a common cause of disability in sportsmen. The majority of cases are due to overuse injury often exacerbated or precipitated by specific and recognisable factors. A variety of pathologies is demonstrable in Achilles tendon pain which accounts for the considerable variation in the described natural history of the disease. The study of patients with Achilles tendon pain is almost impossible unless an accurate diagnosis is made first. The specific factors of the various conditions demonstrated as causes of Achilles tendon pain are set out and the value of different laboratory and other investigations indicated in the particular pathological conditions. Conservative management of Achilles tendon pain may be unrewarding except in acute crepitating peritendinitis. Various forms of conservative treatment are discussed and the literature reviewed. The role of surgery in management of chronic resistent Achilles tendon pain is discussed in detail with particular reference to the indications and the surgical procedures available. The postoperative management of patients following Achilles tendon surgery is discussed and the outcome indicated.