Tricuspid regurgitation: recent advances in understanding pathophysiology, severity grading and outcome

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2022 Jun 21;23(7):913-929. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jeac009.


Heightened interest in tricuspid regurgitation (TR) stems from the consistent association of mortality with greater severity of TR, and a low use of surgical solutions in the setting of high in-hospital mortality attributed to the late presentation of the disease. The delay in intervention is likely related to a limited understanding of the valvular/ventricular anatomy and disease pathophysiology, along with an underestimation of TR severity by standard imaging modalities. With the rapid development of transcatheter solutions which have shown early safety and efficacy, there is a growing need to understand and accurately diagnose the valvular disease process in order to determine appropriate management solutions. The current review will describe both normal and pathologic tricuspid valvular anatomy, the classification of these anatomic substrates of TR, the strengths and limitations of the current guidelines-recommended multi-parametric echocardiographic approach and the role of multi-modality imaging, as well as the role of transcatheter device therapy in the management of the disease.

Keywords: transcatheter; tricuspid regurgitation; tricuspid valve.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tricuspid Valve / surgery
  • Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency* / diagnostic imaging
  • Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency* / therapy