Introduction: In anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein IgM paraprotein-related peripheral neuropathy (anti-MAG PN), there is a lack of reliable biomarkers to select patients eligible for therapy and for evaluating treatment effects, both in routine practice and in clinical trials. Neurofilament light chain (NfL) and contactin-1 (CNTN1) can serve as markers of axonal and paranodal damage. Complement activation is involved in the pathogenesis in anti-MAG PN. We, therefore, hypothesized that serum NfL, CNTN1, C3b/c and C4b/c may function as biomarkers of disease activity in anti-MAG PN.
Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we included 24 treatment-naïve patients with anti-MAG PN (mean age 69 years, 57% male) that had IgM paraproteinemia, a high IgM MAG-antibody, and clinical diagnosis of anti-MAG PN by a neurologist specialized in peripheral nerve disorders. We measured serum NfL, CNTN1, C3b/c and C4b/c, reference values were based on healthy controls. As controls, 10 treatment-naïve patients with IgM Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (mean age 69 years, 60% male) without signs of neuropathy were included (non-PN).
Results: NfL, CNTN1 levels in serum were mostly normal in anti-MAG PN patients and comparable to non-PN patients. C3b/c and C4b/c levels were normal in anti-MAG PN patients.
Conclusion: Our results do not support serum NfL, CNTN1, and C3b/c and C4b/c as potential biomarkers in anti-MAG PN, although we cannot exclude that subgroups or subtle abnormalities could be found in a much larger cohort with longitudinal follow-up.
Keywords: Anti-MAG neuropathy; Biomarkers; Demyelinating diseases; IgM MGUS; Peripheral neuropathy; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia.
© 2022. The Author(s).