In rodents and older patients with elevated blood pressure (BP), high dietary sodium increases excretion of biomarkers of kidney injury, but it is unclear whether this effect occurs in healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term high dietary salt increases urinary excretion of the kidney injury biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in healthy young adults. Twenty participants participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. For 10 days each, participants were asked to consume salt (3,900 mg sodium) or placebo capsules. We measured BP during each visit, obtained 24-h urine samples for measurements of electrolytes, NGAL, and KIM-1, and assessed creatinine clearance. Compared with placebo, salt loading increased daily urinary sodium excretion (placebo: 130.3 ± 62.4 mmol/24 h vs. salt: 287.2 ± 72.0 mmol/24 h, P < 0.01). There was no difference in mean arterial BP (placebo: 77 ± 7 mmHg vs. salt: 77 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.83) between conditions. However, salt loading increased the urinary NGAL excretion rate (placebo: 59.8 ± 44.4 ng/min vs. salt: 80.8 ± 49.5 ng/min, P < 0.01) and increased creatinine clearance (placebo: 110.5 ± 32.9 mL/min vs. salt: 145.0 ± 24.9 mL/min, P < 0.01). Urinary KIM-1 excretion was not different between conditions. In conclusion, in healthy young adults 10 days of dietary salt loading increased creatinine clearance and increased urinary excretion of the kidney injury biomarker marker NGAL but not KIM-1.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In healthy young adults, 10 days of dietary salt loading increased creatinine clearance and increased urinary excretion of the kidney injury biomarker marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin despite no change in resting blood pressure.
Keywords: clinical trial; creatinine clearance; dietary sodium; kidney injury molecule-1; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; sodium chloride.