Disorders of hyperpigmentation. Part II. Review of management and treatment options for hyperpigmentation

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2023 Feb;88(2):291-320. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.065. Epub 2022 Feb 12.


Key challenges in the management of pigmentary disorders such as melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation are their resistance to treatment, tendency to recur after treatment, and the risk of exacerbating hyperpigmentation with many treatment modalities. The second article in this 2-part continuing medical education series on pigmentary disorders focuses on the evidence behind medical and procedural treatments of dyschromias, including photoprotection, topical lightening agents, oral agents, chemical peels, and laser therapy.

Keywords: Q-switched lasers; ablative fractionated lasers; chemical peels; hydroquinone; intense pulsed light; lasers; lightening cosmeceuticals; melasma; nonablative fractionated lasers; oral lightening agents; photoprotection; picosecond lasers; pigmentary disorders; postinflammatory hyperpigmentation; sunscreen; topical lightening agents.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chemexfoliation*
  • Humans
  • Hyperpigmentation* / prevention & control
  • Hyperpigmentation* / therapy
  • Laser Therapy*
  • Low-Level Light Therapy*
  • Melanosis* / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome