Nowadays, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become highly curable. The young age at diagnosis and long life expectancy emphasize the importance of preventing long-term treatment side effects, including bone mineral density (BMD) loss, in these patients. We aimed to evaluate the effects of first-line therapeutic modalities on BMD dynamics in HL patients, intending to identify individuals at risk for osteopenia. Demographics, HL risk factors, treatment, including cumulative steroid doses, and BMD of 213 newly-diagnosed HL patients (median age 29 years), treated at Rambam between 2008-2016, were analyzed. The main chemotherapy regimens applied were: ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) and escalated BEACOPP (EB; bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, prednisone). BMD was measured using PET/CT scans. BMD loss >15% was revealed in 48% of patients at therapy completion, with osteopenia prevalence of 4% and 14% at baseline and post-therapy, respectively. Cumulative hydrocortisone equivalent doses >3400 mg/m2 correlated with significant BMD reduction. Multivariate analysis at 6 months post-therapy identified age ≥30 years and EB-regimens as significant risk factors for BMD decrease >15%. Therapy-related BMD loss is common in HL patients. Its persistence is associated with age ≥30 years and EB treatment. Reduction of cumulative steroid doses and switch to non-gonadotoxic drugs should be considered.
Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma; PET/CT; bone mineral density; chemotherapy regimens; gonadotoxicity; osteopenia; steroids.