Setting Time, Microstructure, and Durability Properties of Low Calcium Fly Ash/Slag Geopolymer: A Review

Materials (Basel). 2022 Jan 24;15(3):876. doi: 10.3390/ma15030876.


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is known for its significant contribution to carbon dioxide emissions. Geopolymer has a lower footprint in terms of CO2 emissions and has been considered as an alternative for OPC. A well-developed understanding of the use of fly-ash-based and slag-based geopolymers as separate systems has been reached in the literature, specifically regarding their mechanical properties. However, the microstructural and durability of the combined system after slag addition introduces more interactive gels and complex microstructural formations. The microstructural changes of complex blended systems contribute to significant advances in the durability of fly ash/slag geopolymers. In the present review, the setting time, microstructural properties (gel phase development, permeability properties, shrinkage behavior), and durability (chloride resistance, sulfate attack, and carbonatation), as discussed literature, are studied and summarized to simplify and draw conclusions.

Keywords: alkali activated; carbonatation; chloride; fly ash; geopolymer; permeability; review; shrinkage; slag; sulfate.

Publication types

  • Review