Machine Learning Techniques for Increasing Efficiency of the Robot's Sensor and Control Information Processing

Sensors (Basel). 2022 Jan 29;22(3):1062. doi: 10.3390/s22031062.


Real-time systems are widely used in industry, including technological process control systems, industrial automation systems, SCADA systems, testing, and measuring equipment, and robotics. The efficiency of executing an intelligent robot's mission in many cases depends on the properties of the robot's sensor and control systems in providing the trajectory planning, recognition of the manipulated objects, adaptation of the desired clamping force of the gripper, obstacle avoidance, and so on. This paper provides an analysis of the approaches and methods for real-time sensor and control information processing with the application of machine learning, as well as successful cases of machine learning application in the synthesis of a robot's sensor and control systems. Among the robotic systems under investigation are (a) adaptive robots with slip displacement sensors and fuzzy logic implementation for sensor data processing, (b) magnetically controlled mobile robots for moving on inclined and ceiling surfaces with neuro-fuzzy observers and neuro controllers, and (c) robots that are functioning in unknown environments with the prediction of the control system state using statistical learning theory. All obtained results concern the main elements of the two-component robotic system with the mobile robot and adaptive manipulation robot on a fixed base for executing complex missions in non-stationary or uncertain conditions. The design and software implementation stage involves the creation of a structural diagram and description of the selected technologies, training a neural network for recognition and classification of geometric objects, and software implementation of control system components. The Swift programming language is used for the control system design and the CreateML framework is used for creating a neural network. Among the main results are: (a) expanding the capabilities of the intelligent control system by increasing the number of classes for recognition from three (cube, cylinder, and sphere) to five (cube, cylinder, sphere, pyramid, and cone); (b) increasing the validation accuracy (to 100%) for recognition of five different classes using CreateML (YOLOv2 architecture); (c) increasing the training accuracy (to 98.02%) and testing accuracy (to 98.0%) for recognition of five different classes using Torch library (ResNet34 architecture) in less time and number of epochs compared with Create ML (YOLOv2 architecture); (d) increasing the training accuracy (to 99.75%) and testing accuracy (to 99.2%) for recognition of five different classes using Torch library (ResNet34 architecture) and fine-tuning technology; and (e) analyzing the effect of dataset size impact on recognition accuracy with ResNet34 architecture and fine-tuning technology. The results can help to choose efficient (a) design approaches for control robotic devices, (b) machine-learning methods for performing pattern recognition and classification, and (c) computer technologies for designing control systems and simulating robotic devices.

Keywords: canonical decomposition; classification; control system; fuzzy logic; machine learning; neural network; pattern recognition; real-time system; robotics; sensor.

MeSH terms

  • Fuzzy Logic
  • Machine Learning
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Robotics*
  • Software