This paper aims to classify local demagnetisation and inter-turn short-circuit (ITSC) on position sensorless permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in transient states based on external stray flux and learning classifier. Within the framework, four supervised machine learning tools were tested: ensemble decision tree (EDT), k-nearest neighbours (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and feedforward neural network (FNN). All algorithms are trained on datasets from one operational profile but tested on other different operation profiles. Their input features or spectrograms are computed from resampled time-series data based on the estimated position of the rotor from one stray flux sensor through an optimisation problem. This eliminates the need for the position sensors, allowing for the fault classification of sensorless PMSM drives using only two external stray flux sensors alone. Both SVM and FNN algorithms could identify a single fault of the magnet defect with an accuracy higher than 95% in transient states. For mixed faults, the FNN-based algorithm could identify ITSC in parallel-strands stator winding and local partial demagnetisation with an accuracy of 87.1%.
Keywords: demagnetisation; inter-turn short circuit; machine learning; permanent magnet synchronous motor; variable load; variable speed.