The Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Glycaemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 19;19(3):1095. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19031095.


The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and other metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes is still evolving.

Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: The PRISMA framework was the method used to conduct the systematic review and meta-analysis, and the search strategy was based on the population, intervention, control and outcome (PICO) model. The Health Sciences Research databases was accessed via EBSCO-host, and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles. Searches were conducted from inception of the databases until 17 September 2021.

Results: The results identified three distinct areas: glycaemic control, lipid parameters and body mass index. It was found that COVID-19 lockdown led to a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the levels of glycated haemoglobin (%) compared with pre-COVID group (gp) with a mean difference of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.38). Eleven studies contributed to the data for glycated haemoglobin analysis with a total of 16,895 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown gp, n = 8417; pre-COVID gp, n = 8478). The meta-analysis of fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) also showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in levels of post-COVID-19 lockdown gp compared with pre-COVID gp, with a mean difference of 7.19 (95% CI: 5.28, 9.10). Six studies contributed to fasting plasma glucose analysis involving a total of 2327 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown, n = 1159; pre-COVID gp, n = 1168). The body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) analysis also demonstrated that post-COVID-19 lockdown gp had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher BMI than the pre-COVID gp with a mean difference of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.99; 1.28), involving six studies and a total of 2363 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown gp, n = 1186; pre-COVID gp, n = 1177). There were significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of total cholesterol (mmol/L), triglyceride (mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (mmol/L), and higher levels of HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) in the post-COVID-19 lockdown gp compared with pre-COVID gp, although these results were not consistent following sensitivity analysis.

Conclusion: The findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis have demonstrated that COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of glycated haemoglobin, fasting glucose and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the effect of the lockdown on lipid parameters, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol was not consistent.

Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 lockdown; SARS-CoV-2; body mass index; coronavirus disease-2019; glycated haemoglobin; lipid parameters; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • COVID-19*
  • Communicable Disease Control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / therapy
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Glycemic Control
  • Humans
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Triglycerides


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Triglycerides