Therapeutic Treatments for Osteoporosis-Which Combination of Pills Is the Best among the Bad?

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 26;23(3):1393. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031393.


Osteoporosis is a chronical, systemic skeletal disorder characterized by an increase in bone resorption, which leads to reduced bone density. The reduction in bone mineral density and therefore low bone mass results in an increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance in the normally strictly regulated bone homeostasis. This imbalance is caused by overactive bone-resorbing osteoclasts, while bone-synthesizing osteoblasts do not compensate for this. In this review, the mechanism is presented, underlined by in vitro and animal models to investigate this imbalance as well as the current status of clinical trials. Furthermore, new therapeutic strategies for osteoporosis are presented, such as anabolic treatments and catabolic treatments and treatments using biomaterials and biomolecules. Another focus is on new combination therapies with multiple drugs which are currently considered more beneficial for the treatment of osteoporosis than monotherapies. Taken together, this review starts with an overview and ends with the newest approaches for osteoporosis therapies and a future perspective not presented so far.

Keywords: anabolic; biomaterial; bone mineral density; bone remodeling; catabolic; combination of treatments; osteoblast; osteoclast; osteoporosis; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Remodeling / drug effects
  • Bone Resorption / drug therapy
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Osteoclasts / drug effects
  • Osteoporosis / drug therapy*