Effects of Yeast Species and Processing on Intestinal Health and Transcriptomic Profiles of Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar) Fed Soybean Meal-Based Diets in Seawater

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 31;23(3):1675. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031675.


The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of yeasts on intestinal health and transcriptomic profiles from the distal intestine and spleen tissue of Atlantic salmon fed SBM-based diets in seawater. Cyberlindnera jadinii (CJ) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus (WA) yeasts were heat-inactivated with spray-drying (ICJ and IWA) or autolyzed at 50 °C for 16 h (ACJ and AWA), followed by spray-drying. Six diets were formulated, one based on fishmeal (FM), a challenging diet with 30% soybean meal (SBM) and four other diets containing 30% SBM and 10% of each of the four yeast fractions (i.e., ICJ, ACJ, IWA and AWA). The inclusion of CJ yeasts reduced the loss of enterocyte supranuclear vacuolization and reduced the population of CD8α labeled cells present in the lamina propria of fish fed the SBM diet. The CJ yeasts controlled the inflammatory responses of fish fed SBM through up-regulation of pathways related to wound healing and taurine metabolism. The WA yeasts dampened the inflammatory profile of fish fed SBM through down-regulation of pathways related to toll-like receptor signaling, C-lectin receptor, cytokine receptor and signal transduction. This study suggests that the yeast species, Cyberlindnera jadinii and Wickerhamomyces anomalus are novel high-quality protein sources with health-beneficial effects in terms of reducing inflammation associated with feeding plant-based diets to Atlantic salmon.

Keywords: Cyberlindnera jadinii; SBMIE; Wickerhamomyces anomalus; autolysis; distal intestine; intestinal health; spleen; transcriptomics.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed*
  • Animals
  • Candida / chemistry*
  • Glycine max / chemistry*
  • Intestines / metabolism*
  • Saccharomycetales / chemistry*
  • Salmo salar / growth & development*
  • Transcriptome*

Supplementary concepts

  • Wickerhamomyces anomalus